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list of biological properties of soil

Below the freezing point, 0°C (32°F) there is no biologic activity; between 0°C and 5°C (32° and 42°F) root growth of most plants and germination of most seeds is impossible; though water can move through the soil and carbonic acid activity may be important. Two main parts of soil are inorganic matter and organic matter. The removal of soluble materials from the surface soil to lower levels by water is called leaching. Management choices affect soil biological processes. Platy soil structure consists of plates-thin flat pieces-in a horizontal position. A pH of 7 indicates a neutral soil; values slightly below 7 indicate mild acidity and values slightly above 7 mild alkalinity. Furthermore, the soil texture determines the water retention capacity of a soil sample. A horizon as cold as 5°C (41 °F) acts as a thermal barrier to the roots of most plants. Sand particles have the largest diameter, whereas clay particles have smallest diameter, among the three so… Soil structure influences the absorption of water by the soil, its erodibility, and ploughing. These are sand, sandy loam, loam and clay. Major types of structure are blocky, granular, columnar, prismatic, crumb, and platy. It is fertile. Specialized proteins that increase the reaction rates of soil chemical processes and influence soil energy and nutrient cycling. As soil water absorbs carbon dioxide from the air, a weak solution of carbonic acid is formed. State the characteristics of sandy soil. The colloids may be organic, made up of very finely divided hymns, or mineral, in which case they are referred to as clay minerals. In other words, density of solid portion of soil is called particle density. It is held at a tension ranging from 1/3 to 31 atmospheres. In sand as both the particles and the pore spaces are large, it drains rapidly. This section introduces soil biology and some of these interactions; however it is covered in much greater detail in Chapter 5 . Soil life, soil biota, soil fauna, or edaphon is a collective term that encompasses all organisms that spend a significant portion of their life cycle within a soil profile, or at the soil-litter interface. Three of the atmospheric gases present in soil air play an active role in soil processes: molecular oxygen (O2), molecular Nitrogen (N2) and Carbon dioxide (CO2). the pores to the total volume of the material, e.g. In sand as both the particles and the pore spaces are large, it drains rapidly. Soil structure is the arrangement of soil particles into small clumps, called peds or aggregates. 5. Together, the two types make up a clay humus complex. In addition, soil water absorbs acid materials formed by the decomposition of organic and inorganic matter. Soil properties govern what type of plants grow in a soil or what The temperature of the soil is influenced by its colour, composition, slope and water content. By Jr., J. Benton Jones. Sandy soil essentially consists of small particles formed by weathering rocks. A colloid is that amorphous state of a substance that does not form a true solution if mixed with liquid substance. The blunt edges of the cubes is called sub-angular blocky structure’. Organic matter includes all the decomposing plant and animal material in the soil. Specific Gravity : The specific gravity of soil, Gs, is defined as the ratio of the unit weight of a given material to the unit weight of water. At this point the foliage of plants not adapted to drought will wilt. In cold humid areas, most soils contain a relatively high humus content and are generally darker whereas in arid areas, little humus is present and soils are light brown or grey. The particle density is calculated as: Particle Density = Weight of solid portion of the soil / Volume of soil. It is the volume of water which can be held within water which can be held within a rock or soil expressed as the ratio of the volume of the voids i.e. Before publishing your Essay on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Soil Plasticity, Compressibility and Erodibility: Soil plasticity is a property that enables the moist soil to change shape when some force is applied over it and to retain this shape even after the removal of the force from it. Soil Processes and Properties That Distinguish Ecological Sites and States By Michael C. Duniway, Brandon T. Bestelmeyer, and Arlene Tugel D ifferences in ecological sites, and sometimes ecological states, are ultimately due to differ-ences in soil properties and processes within a climatic zone. It contains 20 per cent or less of clay and 30 to 50 percent of sand. The particles and pore spaces in clay are small, hence drainage is very slow. (i) Soil Colloids and Cation (Ion) Exchange: Clay mineral particles of colloidal dimensions are chemically active in the soil because of their great surface area. Water forming thicker layers and occupying the smaller pore space is termed as capillary water. Acid materials formed by the decomposition of organic matter, and decompose them the rates... Clay soil is dark ( black ) of unit volume than those with smaller.! 15 per cent or less of clay, sand, silt and clay loam if clay predominates respiration... Material especially those laid down by water is called particle density the surface soil to lower levels by water rice. Shape, size and durability of peds yield is limited by the soil and its particles hold ions in soil. In some degree in soils of high base status have high natural fertility for food crops think again normally. 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