Approximately 3500 infants die annually in the United States from sudden unexpected infant deaths (SUIDs), including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), undetermined causes, and accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed.1–4 SUID rates declined 45% from 1990 to 1998,4 coinciding with the 1992 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendation that infants be placed on their backs to sleep5,6 and the accompanying Back to Sleep (now Safe to Sleep) campaign led by the National Institutes of Health.7 Since 1998, however, the SUID rate has declined <10%,4 whereas the prevalence of back sleep position has plateaued.8–10 To further reduce SUID, the AAP expanded safe sleep recommendations to include using a firm sleep surface (eg, crib or bassinet), room-sharing without bed-sharing, and avoiding soft objects and loose bedding.3,11–13 Data from the National Infant Sleep Position (NISP) study, conducted among nighttime caregivers, show that bed-sharing doubled from 1993 to 2010 (from 6.5%→13.5%),14 whereas soft bedding declined by over a third (from 85.9% to 54.7%).15. Mothers who participated in WIC, received late or no prenatal care, and were Medicaid insured or uninsured generally had lower rates of safe sleep practices. Receiving room-sharing without bed-sharing advice was more common among mothers who were younger, less educated, WIC participants, either Medicaid insured or uninsured, and whose race or ethnicity was not non-Hispanic white or multiple race. Although the Safe Infant Sleep Study of Attitudes and Factors Effecting Infant Care Practices (SAFE), the most recent national study, assessed both bed-sharing and usual sleep surface (eg, crib, bassinet, adult bed, car seat, sofa), 19 we developed a composite measure to assess usual use of a separate approved (crib, bassinet, or pack and play) sleep … In 2017, a study was published on the topic of infants and sleep. 1 The mechanisms by which stomach sleeping … Some studies combine sofa sleeping with bedsharing, making it more difficult to separate the risk factors for each scenario. We thank the PRAMS Working Group for coordinating collection of the data used in this analysis. Of the many valerian … Sleep Studies: In the Sleep Laboratory and in the Home. SIDS and infant sleep ecology. An analysis from two case-control studies conducted in the UK, Bed sharing when parents do not smoke: is there a risk of SIDS? Sleep problems can affect your quality of life, and some can pose a serious The Stanford Center for Human Sleep Research conducts clinical trials that improve ways to treat and manage sleep disorders. National immunization survey: breastfeeding rates. Avoid alcohol and illicit drug use during pregnancy and after birth. Consistent with previous literature,3,8–10,14,15,19–22 we examined characteristics that may be associated with sleep practices and receipt of advice. Novel studies investigating cannabinoids and obstructive sleep apnea suggest that synthetic cannabinoids such as nabilone and dronabinol may have short-term benefit for sleep apnea due to their modulatory effects on serotonin-mediated apneas. We do not capture any email address. Download your copy! Researchers studied 37 families with children ages eight to 11 who usually slept around nine and a half hours a night. B, Separate approved sleep surface. We have information and materials for many audiences, including parents, grandparents, and health care providers. There was also an age gradient for soft bedding use, with teenaged mothers having the lowest prevalence of following recommendations to avoid soft bedding (25.0%) compared with approximately half of mothers ≥30 years. The technique is helpful when babies fuss and fidget, especially when going to sleep. Infants of non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native mothers had notably higher rates of sleeping on a couch or armchair (18.2% vs 9.0% overall) and with a blanket (70.3% vs 50.5% overall). Currently breastfeeding mothers were 22% less likely than mothers not breastfeeding to use separate approved sleep surfaces, whereas mothers who were smoking were 23% less likely than nonsmokers to use separate approved sleep surfaces and 13% less likely to avoid soft bedding. The hallmark of getting a sleep study done is—well, looking something … … While some of our U.K. clients have told us that sleep positioners are approved for overnight crib-use in the U.K., this is not the case in the U.S. Our goal is to provide special needs children (i.e. Further, cribs, bassinets, and pack and plays were presumed “approved” but may not meet safety standards. Back sleep position ranged from 67.4% in Louisiana to 87.7% in Iowa. The safest place for infants to sleep is on their backs, on separate, firm sleep surfaces without any soft bedding and in the same room as caregivers.3 Safe sleep practices, especially those other than back sleep position, are suboptimal, with demographic and state-level differences indicating improvement opportunities. Autism, ASD, ADD/ADHD, Down Syndrome, Epilepsy, etc.) Available at: The effect of nursing quality improvement and mobile health interventions on infant sleep practices: a randomized clinical trial, Use of a computerized decision aid for developmental surveillance and screening: a randomized clinical trial, Council on Clinical Information Technology, Pediatric aspects of inpatient health information technology systems, Disclosure of infant unsafe sleep practices by African American mothers in primary care settings [published online ahead of print July 1, 2019], Implementation of safe sleep practices in Massachusetts NICUs: a state-wide QI collaborative, Implementation of safe sleep practices in the neonatal intensive care unit, TodaysBaby quality improvement: safe sleep teaching and role modeling in 8 US maternity units, The EASE quality improvement project: improving safe sleep practices in Ohio children’s hospitals, The National Network of State Perinatal Quality Collaboratives, The national network of state perinatal quality collaboratives: a growing movement to improve maternal and infant health, The collaborative improvement and innovation network (CoIIN) to reduce infant mortality: an outcome evaluation from the US South, 2011 to 2014. Smith et al19 found that receiving advice from multiple sources, such as family members and health care providers, improved room-sharing without bed-sharing without negatively affecting breastfeeding rates. “No soft bedding” was assessed with a 3-item (no versus yes) composite indicating that the infant usually slept in the past 2 weeks without blankets, toys, cushions, or pillows and crib bumper pads. Our advice is based on strong scientific evidence and should be followed for all sleep periods, not just at night. Statistical significance was defined as a P value <.05 with only practically meaningful differences of at least 5 percentage points highlighted within the text. The prevalence of each safe sleep practice varied significantly by state, ranging ∼20 to 25 percentage points across outcomes (Supplemental Table 6). Non-Hispanic black mothers had the lowest prevalence of using the back sleep position (62.3%), Non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander mothers had the lowest prevalence of using separate approved sleep surfaces (20.6%), and non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native mothers had the lowest prevalence of room-sharing without bed-sharing (50.5%) and avoiding soft bedding (25.6%). Use a firm mattress with a tightly fitted sheet. Case studies, including one published in 2017 and another in 2013, have also linked using zolpidem to suicidal behavior, potentially even during sleep. To access the online version of the training click on the button below: Access Online Training. Oklahoma Sleep Institute is Oklahoma’s premier provider of diagnostic sleep studies and treatment. Non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native mothers were least likely to avoid soft bedding, had lower use of separate approved sleep surfaces, and had doubled prevalence of couch or arm chair sleeping compared with non-Hispanic white mothers. PRAMS data collection methodology has been previously described.18 Briefly, mothers are randomly sampled from birth certificate records and complete the PRAMS survey (mail or telephone) within 2 to 9 months postpartum. Safe to sleep public education campaign. The average change across outcomes, before and after adjustment, was <1 percentage point. Safe Sleep for Oregon’s Infants. Although we compared “always” versus “always or often” sleeping separately, it is unclear whether “often” responses reflected bed-sharing with a sleeping parent versus incidental infant sleep while feeding or bonding with an awake adult. Safe Sleep for Oregon’s Infants is now an interactive online training. 1. The Safe to Sleep ® campaign has outreach activities to spread safe sleep … We postulated that there would be a trend toward more guideline-adherent sleep … Education on safe sleep. We found that non-Hispanic black mothers were least likely to report back sleep position and also had lower prevalence of using separate approved sleep surfaces and avoiding soft bedding compared with non-Hispanic white mothers. Bed-sharing was not specifically assessed either in the measurement of the outcome or provider advice. Safe to Sleep® is a registered trademark of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Receipt of Health Care Provider Advice by Sociodemographic, Behavioral, and Health Care Characteristics, 29 States, PRAMS, 2016. An individual level analysis of five major case-control studies, Maternal report of advice received for infant care, Physician recommendations regarding SIDS risk reduction: a national survey of pediatricians and family physicians, Building on Campaigns With Conversations: An Individualized Approach to Helping Families Embrace Safe Sleep and Breastfeeding, National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, National Institute for Children’s Health Quality. Amamantar y sueño seguro (videos/folleto), Healthy Native Babies Project Toolkits and Guides, Baby’s Anatomy When on the Stomach and on the Back, Infografia: Padres ayuden a sus bebes a dormir seguros, Infographic: Accidental Suffocation and Strangulation, Parents Placing Baby into a Safe Sleep Environment, Safe Sleep for Your Baby Infographic (Horizontal), Safe Sleep for Your Baby Infographic (Vertical), Safe Infant Sleep Social Media Block Party, Outreach Activities In Specific Communities, Building Relationships With Trusted Community Members. State-level differences in safe sleep practices spanned ∼20 to 25 percentage points and did not substantially change after adjustment to promote comparability across demographic, behavioral, and health care characteristics. Professor James J. McKenna’s Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Laboratory studies how sleeping environments reflect and respond to family needs—in particular how they affect mothers, breastfeeding, and infants’ physiological and psychological well-being and development. Good sleep is crucial for a healthy life.. Receipt of provider advice is an important modifiable factor to improve infant sleep practices. Usual safe infant sleep practice prevalence by state, PRAMS, 2016. Simple care giving techniques can play a critical role in keeping infants safe during sleep. Maybe you’ve participated in a sleep research study. SIDS is related to many factors, such as the baby’s position and objects in the crib. US Department of Health and Human Services, Common SIDS and SUID Terms And Definitions, Ways To Reduce The Risk Of SIDS And Other Sleep-Related Causes Of Infant Death, 2020 SIDS Awareness Month #SafeSleepSnap Digital Toolkit, The Science Of SIDS And Safe Infant Sleep. Video Abstract OBJECTIVES: To examine prevalence of safe infant sleep practices and variation by sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care characteristics, including provider advice. However, since the late 1990s, declines have slowed. This study aims to assess caregivers’ implementation of safe sleep … Safe Sleep Collaborative Improvement and Innovation Network (CoIIN) to Reduce Infant Mortality. Approximately 3500 infants die annually in the United States from sleep-related sudden unexpected causes. An initiative to decrease the instances of sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) rates and reduce racial disparities in sleep-related deaths. You will be redirected to aap.org to login or to create your account. Before 2005, the AAP recommended room-sharing only as an alternative to bed-sharing, which may explain lower rates of provider advice. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Differences by sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care characteristics with regard to provider advice were generally smaller than for safe sleep practices (mostly within 5–10 percentage points). We also explore state variation and examine associations between provider advice and each of 4 corresponding sleep-related practices. Popular parenting advice ignores the idea that sleep … Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on American Academy of Pediatrics. New mobile health message interventions,39 clinical decision support tools,40–42 and quality improvement initiatives,43–46 including CDC-funded perinatal quality collaborative initiatives,47 also show promise to improve safe sleep practices. Besides depression, studies have found that a lack of sleep is linked with mental health conditions like anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, and Post-Traumatic … In 2012, the campaign was renamed Safe to Sleep and expanded to encompass all sleep-related, sudden unexpected infant deaths (SUID) as well as highlight the American Academy of … Operationalization of these 2 measures offers a consistent assessment of usual practice across items, which aligns with previous national studies.6,8,14,15,19 We also examined report of the infant “always” versus “often, sometimes, rarely, or never” sleeping in their own crib or bed for “separate approved sleep surface” and “room-sharing without bed-sharing” to more closely reflect adherence to the AAP recommendation of separate sleep surfaces for infants. Most short-term studies show that melatonin is safe with little to no side effects and may help kids fall asleep faster and sleep longer. 11. Guidelines to Sleeping Safe with Infants: Adapted from: Maximizing the chances of Safe Infant Sleep in the Solitary and Cosleeping (Specifically, Bed-sharing) Contexts, by James J. McKenna, Ph.D. CONCLUSIONS: Safe infant sleep practices, especially those other than back sleep position, are suboptimal, with demographic and state-level differences indicating improvement opportunities. Perhaps the best evidence to date comes from a study published in 2015 in the Journal of Sleep Medicine and Disorders. To improve interpretation and translation, we converted estimated odds to marginal probabilities and adjusted prevalence ratios.23 Unadjusted and model-adjusted state-level prevalence estimates were compared to assess the contribution of covariates in explaining state variation. Safe to Sleep ® CDC collaborates with the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in its Safe to Sleep ® campaign, formerly known as the Back to Sleep campaign. Although breastfeeding reduces SIDS risk,20,32 breastfeeding was associated with lower rates of room-sharing without bed-sharing and using separate approved sleep surfaces, consistent with other literature.9,19–21 The AAP recognizes women may fall asleep when breastfeeding20 and recommends that if mothers fall asleep while feeding on the same surface, they should return the infant to a separate sleep surface as soon as they awaken. Report of receiving health care provider advice was associated with an increased prevalence of safe sleep practices, ranging from 12% (room-sharing without bed-sharing) to 28% (back sleep position) higher, with absolute prevalence differences ranging from 6.0 to 17.3 percentage points. Sociodemographic characteristics obtained from the birth certificate included maternal age, race and ethnicity, education, marital status, and state of residence as well as infant gestational age. The weighted overall mean response rate was 61% (range: 55%–73%). About one in five SIDS deaths occur while an infant is being cared for by someone other than a parent. Taking up to 0.8 grams/kg of body weight per day appears to be safe, but more studies are needed. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. After adjustment, most characteristics remained significantly related to one or more safe sleep practice, with the exception of WIC participation (Table 4). Or perhaps you're just looking for your next Halloween costume. Sleep enhances moods. Usual Safe Infant Sleep Practices by Sociodemographic, Behavioral, and Health Care Characteristics, 29 States, PRAMS, 2016. Differences by sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care characteristics were larger for safe sleep practices (∼10–20 percentage points) than receipt of advice (∼5–10 percentage points). A new study suggests more sleep may be the key to helping kids get active. Comparative evolutionary studies indicate that human infants are poorly neurologically developed at birth, and thus require close physical contact for safety, physiological regulation and frequent feeding. Safe Cosleeping Guidelines. Prenatal alcohol and/or illicit drug … Adjusted Associations With Usual Safe Infant Sleep Practices, 29 States, PRAMS, 2016. Both NISP6,8,14,15 and SAFE10,19 lacked sufficient sample size to examine all major racial and ethnic groups. Missing data ranged from 2% to 6% across outcomes. We analyzed 2016 PRAMS data to describe safe sleep practices aligned with the AAP recommendations and HRSA Title V national performance measure as well as associations with receipt of provider advice and other factors to identify improvement opportunities. Receiving advice to room share without bed-sharing ) to reduce infant mortality baby. Further Reading for more information on these definitions, see here five SIDS deaths occur while an lies. 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